They were introduced in AD&D 2 Planescape as a collection of various books, 3.5 as two books (guide and player's handbook), 4e (one book) and 5e (a chapter so far in the DMG).
The nonsense of the spacial geometries apart, the are kind of cool.
In one of the editions each plane was given a symbol as fluff. Teleportation circles have a series of sigils —Stargate chevrons basically. Here are my copies of the symbols:
Also: Illustrator file and pdf A4 file.
|Mechanus (Nirvana of)|
|Bytopia —no idea why the -y|
|Ysgard —faux Asgard|
|Arborea —wasn't that a place in Flash Gordon?|
|Gehenna —oh, that one which makes little sense.|
Whereas these I made up:
|Sigil —12 planes not counting the outlands, hence the dodecahedral star|
|Plane of mirrors|
|Shadowfell —okay, it's a bio hazard rip off.|
|World Serpent Inn|
|Air —the alchemical symbols are triangles but Celestial took the air one.|
A desperate attempt, I'll admit.
|Plane of dreams. Also a poor attempt.|